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      ?今日:2019年 10月 11日 星期五 农历: 己亥年九月十三
      圆寂千年成神话 日本高僧空海为何至今有人送饭?
      发布日期:2018-01-02  点击数:740

      空海(774-835),堪称日本史上最著名的僧侣,也是梦枕貘小说《沙门空海》的主人公,近期陈凯歌的电影《妖猫传》中也有这一人物。这位入唐求法僧、日本真言宗祖师又被称作“弘法大师”,在日本的传说中以神异著称,梦枕貘选择以他为主人公,当然也是看中了他身上的神异特质。空海的众多传说中,最为知名的恐怕就是“高野山入定传说”了。这里面说空海在高野山以生身入定(禅定),五十六亿七千万年后弥勒菩萨出世时将苏醒过来,继续救度众生。因此据说今天在高野山奥之院的空海御庙,真言僧们仍然要给他“送饭”。这样一个看起来荒诞不经的故事究竟是如何产生的呢?

      《妖猫传》中的白居易与空海

      空海入定传说的早期形态

      高野山金刚峰寺,原本是弘仁七年(816)由空海上表而建成的真言宗“修禅之一院”,也是空海年少修行时就到过,并且中意的地方。由于偏居纪伊深山,距离京城十分遥远,修造工程非常困难。在空海在世时,完成的建筑仅有多宝塔一座、讲堂一座、僧坊一座而已。承和二年(835)空海圆寂,埋骨高野山。在弟子真然主持下,高野山堂塔继续营造,终于落成。然而此后,高野山的运营越发困难,十世纪初就已经陷入荒废状态,天历六年(952)、正历五年(994)的火灾更使得山上建筑焚毁殆尽。这以后,山上几乎已经没有僧侣居住了。

      然而在空海埋骨高野山以后一百多年中,“入定传说”并未见诸史料。延喜二十一年(921),时任东寺长者、高野山座主的观贤向朝廷奏请为空海赐谥号,空海遂得以成为“弘法大师”。同年十一月,观贤奉敕命登高野山,拜见空海“入定禅窟”,说空海“容仪颜色于今不变,俨然如古相貌”。这一记载出自十三世纪的史料《高野山奥院兴废记》,那么,更早的平安时代史料对于空海的“入定”是如何记载的呢?

      十世纪下半叶的史料《金刚峰寺建立缘起》里面这样描写空海圆寂的场面:“吾入定之间,往知足天,而参仕慈尊御前……慈尊下生之时,必随从而可见吾旧迹。”意思是说,空海入定(圆寂)后,会去兜率天(知足天)弥勒菩萨(慈尊)那里,将来弥勒菩萨下生降世的时候,他还会随从弥勒菩萨回来。这个史料等于是说空海表示“他还会回高野山的”。但无论如何,《金刚峰寺建立缘起》说空海圆寂后是去了兜率天,而不会留在高野山。空海本人确实是弥勒信仰者,这在他的《三教指归》《性灵集》中可以得到确认。毫无疑问,这个记载与后世流传的空海入定传说完全不同,却与空海本人的弥勒信仰颇为吻合。

      类似的内容同样见于《廿五条御遗告》,这个史料过去曾被认为是空海亲自留下的遗言,近代以后却已被公认是十世纪末以后的伪作,这里面说:“吾闭眼后,必方往生兜率他天。可待弥勒慈尊御前,五十六亿余之后,必慈尊御共下生祗候可问吾先迹。”其内容与前面举出的《金刚峰寺建立缘起》相近,然而值得注意的是,这里面虽然也说空海圆寂后去了兜率天,将来要和弥勒菩萨一起下生降世,并且“问吾先迹(回来看看)”,但这里并没有说“回来看看”的对象是高野山。而且,《廿五条御遗告》甚至没有将空海的圆寂称为“入定”而是使用了“闭眼”这个词。

      空海

      对于以上提到的史料,日本学者白井优子、松本昭等已经做出了详尽的分析。可以说,在十世纪有关“空海入定”的记载里,空海并未“长留高野山”,而是死后往生到兜率天陪弥勒菩萨去了。这就是“弥勒上生信仰”,在唐代的中国,弥勒上生信仰也非常流行,玄奘法师也是弥勒信仰者,相信自己死后能够往生兜率天。而《廿五条御遗告》《金刚峰寺建立缘起》记载的后半部分,即弥勒下生降世之时,空海将追随弥勒菩萨降世这个说法,则体现的是“弥勒下生信仰”,这是说五十六亿七千万年之后,作为未来佛的弥勒佛将从兜率天下生到人间来。因而当时的真言僧相信,他们的祖师空海,将来一定也会随同弥勒佛下生再来。

      高野山成为“现世净土”

      到了十一世纪初,空海入定传说发生了一些有意思的“变化”。宽弘元年(1004)九月二十五日《太政官符案》记录了高野山的僧侣的领地纠纷官司。高野山的僧侣们声明了高野山金刚峰寺领地的“四至(东西南北的界限)”,他们还说,空海在唐朝时向天扔了一个三钴(密教法器),后来法器就落到了高野山,因而高野山是“有缘之地”,是举世无双的灵验之处。不仅如此,高野山的领地更是为真言宗僧侣“永代领掌”,神圣不可侵犯。而后祖师空海也“入定”于此,全身不腐,等待弥勒下生。僧侣们大致是说,高野山内诸多庄园都是山神们让给空海的土地,恳请朝廷做主,拿回属于自己的土地,并免除寺院三纲的杂役。

      在这篇《太政官符案》所记载的高野山僧侣的主张中我们发现,他们眼中的空海并没有往生兜率天,到弥勒菩萨那里去,而是一直“入定”在高野山,等待弥勒菩萨来。换言之,空海不是将来和弥勒菩萨一起回高野山,而是压根儿就没走,他就在高野山等弥勒菩萨来,给他接风洗尘呢。

      事实上,十世纪末至十一世纪初的相关史料中已经有了空海圆寂后尸体不腐的传说。而到这时,空海长期入定于高野山的说法终于出现。由于这一史料记载的是场官司,反映的是高野山僧侣的经济诉求,这里面入定的说法当然带有了特别的意味——空海祖师还在高野山,高野山仍然是不可侵犯的灵验圣地。此外,宽弘五年(1008)完成的《政事要略》中作者惟宗允亮说,他在参拜河内普光寺时,僧幡庆对他讲了梦中遇空海一事,惟宗允亮遂感叹空海至今仍在高野山。可见,入定传说已经在一定程度上流传,并非打官司的高野山僧侣一时兴起所作。

      高野山的圣地奥之院

      前面提到,空海死后的高野山运营非常困难,几度火灾,堂塔烧毁殆尽,甚至一度山上修行僧已经绝迹,此后试图复兴高野山的僧侣仍为数不少。白井优子指出,空海入定传说是在十世纪高野山荒废状态下,在外来僧侣复兴高野山的努力过程中诞生。为复兴高野山而不懈奋斗的外来修行僧及弥勒信仰(特别是下生信仰)、净土信仰的流行,都是空海入定传说产生的原因。换句话说,面对烧毁殆尽、人迹罕至的高野山,要使高野山重新进入当权者的视野,高野山就必须成为举世无双的灵验之地。

      藤原道长(《紫式部日记绘卷》)

      公卿贵胄的参拜热潮

      治安三年(1023),权倾朝野的藤原道长受小野僧正仁海(真言宗僧侣)的鼓动登高野山,此时正是高野山的恢复期。藤原道长于十月二十三日拜空海庙,供养《法华经》一部、《理趣经》三十卷。而后的永承三年(1048),关白藤原赖通(藤原道长之子)参拜高野山,再拜空海庙,供养《法华经》《理趣经》。此后,天皇、上皇、公卿贵胄之参拜络绎不绝。高野山修行僧们的宣传努力无疑收到了效果。

      十一世纪以后高野山快速复兴,堂塔建筑渐渐落成,山内僧侣大幅增加。在此以后,空海的传记仍被继续创作出来,譬如宽治三年(1089)真言僧经范的《大师御行状集记》,其中描述说“弘法大师藏身于高野,传法身秘教待龙华三会”。这时候,空海入定高野山的神话已经定型。由于空海一直待在高野山,等待弥勒下生降世,高野山得以成为“现世净土”。后世日本不分阶层,都乐于埋骨高野山、参拜空海庙,僧侣也愿意隐居其中,与现世净土结缘,以求死后去到真正的彼岸净土中去。这也就是高野山奥之院内墓塔遍地的原因。

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