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      ?今日:2019年 10月 07日 星期一 农历: 己亥年九月初九
      没有辣椒的日子里 唐代人用什么来调味?
      发布日期:2017-11-09  点击数:956

      《刺客聂隐娘》这部电影对于唐代的服饰、器用、建筑等细节考证十分用心,基本上还原了唐代的史实。电影上映时,导演侯孝贤和编剧谢海盟曾接受一个采访,说到电影拍摄一户农家墙上挂着玉米是不合理的,拍出来会非常突兀。因为在唐朝,是不可能有玉米的。侯导说电影拍摄最困难的是我们不知道唐朝是怎么样的,但是至少什么是没有的应该清楚。

      作为一名爱好吃辣和烹饪兼唐史研究者,一直关心唐代人吃不吃辣这个重大历史问题。在这里,我要先申明:唐人不吃辣椒,不吃辣椒,不吃辣椒,重要的事情说三遍。因为辣椒和玉米一样,还没有传入中国。直到七八百年后的明朝开始才进入东南沿海。

      并且在很短时间里就传到内陆地区,受到了众人的喜爱,成为了现在餐桌上常见的食材(可参读《中国国家地理 》2014年第07期《辣椒:征服中国400年》)。虽然唐人不能吃到辣椒,但是还是能吃到辛辣的。在没有辣椒的漫长岁月里,唐代人所食用的辛辣调味料主要有花椒、胡椒、茱萸等。

      首先说花椒,花椒主要味道是麻,带辛辣。花椒的使用历史最为悠远。早在《诗经·载芟》就载:“有飶其香,邦家之光。有椒其馨,胡考之宁。”可见花椒作为本土调料的地位。根据《中国古典食谱》的记载,在花椒食用达到鼎盛时期的唐代,菜谱中使用花椒的食物比例占到37%。《唐语林》卷六记:“时豪家饮次,起羊肉一斤,层布于巨胡饼,隔中以椒豉,润以酥,入炉迫之,候肉半熟食之,呼为‘古楼子’。胡饼就类似于现在新疆的馕,而这“古楼子”就是中肉胡饼,里面就加入了椒豉等调味。

      唐人曾大量种植花椒,以满足食材需要。唐人裴迪《椒园》诗云:“丹刺胃人衣,芳香留过客。幸堪调鼎用,愿君垂采摘。”不仅在食物中加入花椒,唐人有时也在酒、茶中加入辛辣调料,如《太平广记》卷一五三引《逸史》记载,李宗回等二人来到华阴,县令为之款待,并说:“二贤冲寒,且速暖两大盏酒来,着椒葱。”

      可能加入椒、葱的热酒不但可以暖体消寒。宋人曾慥《类说》卷二引《邺侯家传》之“茶诗”条载:“皇孙奉节王煎茶加酥、椒之类,求泌作诗,泌曰:‘旋沫翻成碧玉池,添酥散作琉璃眼’。奉节王即德宗也。” 这位嗜茶的皇帝还在茶中加入了椒。

      除了本土的花椒之外,唐人还将当时传入的域外香料,用于本土烹饪之中,如南洋岛国出产的胡椒就成为风靡唐代的辛香调味品。《千金翼方》卷第三本草中云:“胡椒,味辛,大温,无毒。主下气、温中、去痰。除藏腑中风冷。 生西戎。形如鼠李子,调食用之。味甚辛辣。而芳香当不及蜀椒。 ”

      又《酉阳杂俎》卷一八记载说:“胡椒,出摩伽陀国,呼为昧履支,其苗蔓生,茎极柔弱,叶长寸半,有细条与叶齐,条上结子,两两相对,其叶晨开暮合,合则裹其子于叶中。子形似汉椒,至辛辣,六月采,今人作胡盘肉食皆用之。”

      胡椒的传入,显然受到了唐代显贵们的欢迎。由于唐代北方仍受到游牧民族“胡食”的影响,因此在唐人饮食中羊肉甚多,据《唐六典》卷四记载了唐代政府供给各级官员的食料,其中对亲王以下所赐食料中有“每月给羊二十口、猪肉六十斤、鱼三十头,各一尺。”的规定,可知羊肉的食用广泛。

      另外,唐代人基本上很少吃牛肉。牛是古代耕种、运输的工具,禁止屠宰。《唐律疏议》 卷十五 明确规定:“诸故杀官私马牛者,徒一年半。疏议曰:官私马牛,为用处重:牛为耕稼之本,马即致远供军,故杀者徒一年半。”《资治通鉴》卷二四六唐武宗会昌二年五月条还载有唐武宗的诏令,其中有云:“牛,稼穑之资,中国禁人屠宰;羊,中国所鲜,出于北边杂虏,国家未尝科调。”

      可见,唐人牛肉吃的少,羊肉吃得多。不过,羊肉膻味比较重。因此,既能压住食物中的腥膻,又能刺激肠胃分泌,有助于消化的辛辣调味——胡椒,成为了唐人餐桌上的佐料之一。

      唐代还又一道著名硬菜叫“浑羊殁忽”,《太平广记》记载:“见京都人说,两军每行从进食,及其宴设,多食鸡鹅之类。就中爱食子鹅,鹅每只价值二三千。每有设,据人数取鹅。燖去毛,及去五脏,酿以肉及糯米饭,五味调和。先取羊一口,亦燖剥,去肠胃。置鹅于羊中,缝合炙之。羊肉若熟,便堪去却羊。取鹅浑食之,谓之‘浑羊殁忽’。”

      想想这样的菜没点胡椒调味,应该会差点意思。早在北魏的《齐民要术》中就有关于胡椒的食用,其卷八云:“肥白羊肉生始周年者,杀,则生缕切如细叶,脂亦切。 著浑豉、盐、繴葱白、姜、椒、毕拨、胡椒,令调适。 净洗羊肚,飜之。 以切肉脂内于肚中,以向满为限,缝合……内肚著坑中,还以灰火覆之,于上更燃火,炊一石米顷,便熟。 香美异常,非煮、炙之例。 ”里面多提到的外来调味料,就是胡椒和毕拔(pippal,是另外一种长胡椒,名称来自梵文)。

      但是,唐代的胡椒基本上来自于海外,其价格也非常高昂。唐代的高官权贵也特地囤积这种调料。据《新唐书》卷一四五《元载传》记载,大历十二年,有旨抄没元载家,得钟乳五百两,胡椒至八百石,它物称是。唐代一石约五十多公斤,八百石的胡椒得吃一辈子吧。

      唐代还有一种辛辣的调味叫茱萸,我们熟悉这种植物是因为王维的诗《九月九日忆山东兄弟》诗:“遥知兄弟登高处,遍插茱萸少一人。” 不过还有一首诗是唐代李颀的作品,《九月九日刘十八东堂》载:“风俗尚九日,此情安可忘。菊花辟恶酒,汤饼茱萸香。”汤饼就是面条,属于唐时民间比较常见的食物,李颀就喜欢在里面加一些茱萸调味。

      图片选自《中国国家地理》 

      由此可见,唐人虽然吃不到辣椒,却也能享受一些辣味。想象下韦巨源《烧尾宴》食谱中,要是少了这些辛辣调味,那口味该多单调。

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