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    1. 您好,欢迎来到国学教育网! 登陆 | 免费注册
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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      座席上的老规矩:为什么贵客要坐西边?
      发布日期:2017-09-15  点击数:946

      古人席次尚右,右为宾师之位,居西而面东。家塾教师和官僚们的幕客,都称为“西宾”,又称“西席”,主人称为“东家”。所以古人尊称授业解惑之师为“西席”。

      我国古代的礼节,席位尊卑有君臣和主宾两种。君臣之礼,以南面(面向南)为皇帝一人独尊之位,任何人不得篡其位,即南面称尊,北面称臣。主宾之礼则取东西向,主人出于对宾客的尊敬,自坐东位,即面西而坐;而让客人坐西位,即面东而坐。西位为尊位。这在古籍中也多有记载。《史记·廉颇蔺相如列传》记载:“(赵)括一旦为将,东向而朝,军吏无敢仰视之者。”善于纸上谈兵的赵括自己面东而坐在尊位上,藐视其他的军吏,将夸夸其谈、狂妄自大的赵括刻画得活灵活现。《史记·魏其武安侯列传》记载,武安候田蚡专横跋扈,妄自尊大,他做了宰相后,“尝召客饮,坐其兄盖侯南乡,自坐东乡,以为汉相尊,不可以兄故私桡”。田蚡以汉相自居,连他的同母异父的哥哥也不放在眼里,自己面东而坐。《史记·绛侯周勃世家》说,周勃厚重少文,不喜爱文辞学问,不拘礼节,每次召见儒生和游说之士,他面向东坐着,很不客气地跟儒生们谈话,要求他们:“赶快对我说吧!”他的质朴少文才就像这个样子。《汉书·王陵传》记载,项羽把王陵的母亲放在军中,王陵的使者来了,项羽就让王陵的母亲东向而坐,让使者看到自己对王母是尊敬的,以此想来招降王陵。但是王母却不领情,哭着对使者说:“希望替老妇告诉王陵,好好侍奉汉王,汉王是仁厚长者,不要因为老妇而有二心。我用死来为使者送行。”

      孔子讲学图孔维克/绘

      由此可见,在室内坐西面东是上座。古人将宾客和老师安排在坐西朝东的座位上,以表示尊敬。明代杨慎有“杨堤叶屿迥相邻,东主西宾意自亲”的诗句。

      清人梁章钜在《称谓录》中说:“汉明帝尊桓荣以师礼,上幸太常府,令荣坐,东面,设几。故师曰西席。”汉明帝提倡尊师重道,明帝为太子时,曾跟博士桓荣学过《尚书》,刘庄即位后,尊桓荣以师礼,甚见亲重。他曾亲自到太常府去,让桓荣面东而坐,设置几杖,像当年讲学一样,聆听老师的指教。他还集合骠骑将军、东平王刘苍以下百官和桓荣的学生数百人到太常府,向桓荣行弟子礼。大家请明帝讲解,明帝谦虚地笑着说:“老师在座,不必问我。”桓荣这时年已逾80,常常生病不起,明帝亲自派太医去为其治病。桓荣寿终,明帝亲执弟子礼,作孝服为其举哀。明帝这样做当然是出于师生之谊,然而更重要的是为天下树立表率,向社会倡导一种尊师重道的风气。

      古典文学作品里也常把老师称为“西席”。唐代柳宗元有诗曰:“若道柳家无子弟,往年何事乞西宾。”元代散曲作家张鸣善曾作《普天乐·嘲西席》,嘲讽乡间教书先生的呆板与啰唆。《红楼梦》第二回“贾夫人仙逝扬州城,冷子兴演说荣国府”中写道:“因闻得鹾政欲聘一西宾,雨村便相托友力,谋了进去,且作安身之计。”《儒林外史》第二回“王孝廉村学识同科,周蒙师暮年登上第”中说:“申祥甫连忙斟一杯酒道:‘梅三相该敬一杯。顾老相公家西席就是周先生了。’”《官场现形记》第八回“谈官派信口开河,亏公项走头无路”写道:“陶子尧道:‘你又来了。咱们请的西席老夫子才叫先生,怎么堂子里好称先生?’”有一副对联赞美老师教育有方,得意门生遍布乡里:“西席桃李满桑梓,东坦龙蛇尽楷模。”

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