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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      悟空出走 哪吒自尽 神仙为何也怕“连坐”?
      发布日期:2017-09-15  点击数:907

      人间律法之残忍莫过于株连九族,其实神话故事里也有连坐。今天就聊聊神仙世界里的连坐故事与那些卑劣的人性算计。

      1、逼走悟空,逼死哪吒

      唐僧就是一个被连坐吓破了胆、丢了智商与人格的人。

      在三打白骨精的故事中,唐僧怪悟空错杀了人,但是他的理由却超级世故与奇葩:

      “你在这荒郊野外,一连打死三人,还是无人检举,没有对头。倘到城市之中,人烟凑集之所,你拿了那哭丧棒,一时不知好歹,乱打起人来,撞出大祸,教我怎的脱身?你回去罢!”(《西游记》第二十七回《尸魔三戏唐三藏圣僧恨逐美猴王》)

      唐僧责怪悟空杀人,但他更害怕的是悟空将来在大庭广众之下杀人,这会让师傅连坐而无法逃脱。

      资料图

      白骨精之所以离间成功唐僧师徒,抓住的恰恰是唐僧对于连坐的恐惧。尤其是那猪一般的队友猪八戒借机进谗言:“行者打杀他的女儿,又打杀他的婆子,这个正是他的老儿寻将来了。我们若撞在他的怀里呵,师父,你便偿命,该个死罪;把老猪为从,问个充军;沙僧喝令,问个摆站;那行者使个遁法走了,却不苦了我们三个顶缸?”

      其实就古代礼法来说,杀了白骨精所化的草民女子,还真没有严重到徒弟犯法而连坐师傅的规定。要连坐一般也得是犯了十恶大罪,危害王权,杀了王亲国戚之类。但是很明显,唐僧吓破胆了,着急忙慌地驱逐悟空以自保,师徒从相爱到相残。

      对连坐深入骨髓的恐惧由此可见。连坐带来的人防人、人整人由此可见。

      我一直觉得,连坐是比凌迟还残忍的刑罚。凌迟再苦,反正只一人承受,不连累其他,也不欠人情分。但连坐不一样,它蓄意撕裂人性。连坐故意挑起你跟你亲近之间的斗争,故意将你设计成为拖累大家的孽子,故意制造一个法律跟伦理的困局。连坐将你最亲近的那群人都逼成了你的敌人,让你在临死之前还要遭受这种人性的撕裂与侮辱。

      《封神演义》中,哪吒就受不了这种羞辱,愤而自杀。

      资料图

      哪吒闹海,打死龙王三太子。龙王要求哪吒赔命,否则要水淹陈塘关, 让所有民众包括哪吒父母化为鱼食。李靖无奈,要杀哪吒谢罪。小哪吒是个有血性,有担当的英雄,为了不连累父母和百姓,他割肉剔骨,以报父母。在一些影视作品中,龙王不仅是威胁,而是已经发洪水淹杀民众。没有这么刻薄的算计,血肉之躯的小哪吒不至于变成后来那个没有魂魄的莲花化身。

      最近上映的西游续作《悟空传》,也是一个不堪连坐愤而反抗的故事。

      孙悟空桀傲不驯。天庭于是株连毁掉他的花果山,以掌控众生命运。花果山上本有着安居乐业的百姓,他们就在悟空的眼前,全部成为那神秘莫测的天机仪下的冤魂。悟空彻底怒了,喊出那句台词,“我要这天,再遮不住我眼, 要这地,再埋不了我心”,大闹天机处,毁掉一切戒律。

      沙僧的前世是卷帘大将,因为失手打碎玉玻璃,被贬下凡尘,每日受飞剑穿心之苦。一些影视剧说是悟空大闹天宫,玉帝没有面子,这时候打碎琉璃盏,玉帝于是拿卷帘当替罪羊,这是一种变相的连坐。《西游记》原文还描写了真实的连坐。“失手打破玉玻璃,天神个个魂飞丧。玉皇即便怒生嗔,却令掌朝左辅相。卸冠脱甲摘官衔,将身推在杀场上。”(第二十二回《八戒大战流沙河木叉奉法收悟净》)琉璃盏是卷帘打碎的,但旁边的天兵天也吓得“惊心胆寒”,个个魂飞魄散,可见玉帝平时多么喜欢株连。天宫上下战战兢兢,唯恐不慎触犯龙颜,这正是古代专制治下臣民心态的真实写照。专制者必须让臣民时刻处于一种受威胁和恐吓状态,以消除任何对权力的不满和挑战。

      2、连坐,最违反人性的制度

      这个让神仙都为之胆寒的制度有其现实由来。  

      《汉书?刑法志》:“秦用商鞅连坐之法,造参夷之诛”。一般会将正式的连坐制度追溯到商鞅变法。商鞅变法时,立相坐之法,十家为伍,有问题要互相纠举揭发,否则连坐。如不告奸,腰斩;匿奸与降敌同罪。当时连坐有什伍连坐、军伍连坐、职务连坐和族刑连坐等多种形式。

      但从观念上说,这还可追溯到更早。传说夏启有条军令:“予则孥戮汝”."即对犯罪者除惩罚本人外,还罪及他的妻和子等等。商汤伐夏誓师于亳时,也曾威胁说:“尔不从誓言,予则孥戮汝,罔有攸赦。”战国时期,李悝《法经》已明确将族刑纳入刑罚体系,规定:“越城者,......自十人以上则夷其乡及族。”

      资料图:韩非子

      法家另一位代表人物韩非子对连坐有过专门论述:

      是故夫治之国,善以止奸为务,是何也?其法通乎人情,关乎治理也,则使相窥奈何?曰:盖里相坐而已,禁尚有连于已者,理不得不相窥,唯恐不得免、有奸心者不令得志,窥者多矣。如此,则慎已窥彼,发奸之密,告过者免罪受赏,失奸者必诛连刑,如此则奸类发矣,奸不容细,私告任坐使然也。(《韩非子·制分第五十五》)

      这段话极其阴暗。法家算准了,在人人自危的高压下,分化瓦解一定会成功,出于人人自保的天性,一定会落入人盯人、人整人的陷阱,彼此监督、互相告发。

      法家治理社会确实是有效的,但是是可怕的,一个将立足于如此阴暗而真实的人性之上的学派,怎么可能不成功?但是这种社会又怎么可能不让人绝望?司马迁用“刻薄寡恩”来形容法家并不为过。

      很多小说影视都会有这种情节:操控者对一群人说,你们只允许留下一个人活着走出来,你们自己决定。接下来千篇一律,那群人互相拿刀砍向对方,但从来没想过合作砍向那个操控者。

      人,有时就这么蠢,这么贱。

      历史往往也会作弄人。商鞅最终作法自毙。外逃时,旅馆老板害怕自己被连坐将其告发,商鞅自食其果,被处以“车裂”极刑,并被连坐灭族。只可惜的是,一位哲人说过,历史给人最大的教训便是从来没有人听历史的教训。这些做法在正史野史上都不绝如缕。

      3、凤仙郡全郡株连

      悟空、哪吒再被连坐,好歹都是神仙,命基本还在。凡人就不一样了。《西游记》中被连坐得最惨的当是凤仙郡全郡民众。

      资料图

      凤仙郡三年大旱,五谷不生,十室九空,家家啼哭,饿死无数。悟空召唤龙王降雨,龙王却不敢。悟空上天申诉,却才得知不过是因为凤仙郡郡侯供奉时不符礼数,“将斋天素供,推倒喂狗,口出秽言,造有冒犯之罪”,惹得玉帝勃然大怒,下旨严惩,停雨大旱以示责罚。

      郡侯不符礼数,确有不当,玉帝要惩罚,罚他一人便是。但对全境百姓来说,又何错之有?玉帝偏偏以连坐之法惩罚,三年大旱,弄得饿殍遍野,民不聊生。

      唐僧问郡侯干旱几时,郡侯接过话头,哭诉凤仙郡所遭受的苦难: 

      “一连三载遇干荒,草子不生绝五谷。大小人家买卖难,十门九户俱啼哭。三停饿死二停人,一停还似风中烛。”

      这虽是小说家言,但实在也是中国历史上灾荒的真实写照。这一类诗歌,中国人实在是太熟悉了。

      上溯《诗经·大雅·召旻》“旻天疾威,天笃降丧。瘨我饥馑,民卒流亡。我居圉卒荒。”说的便是那烽火戏诸侯的周幽王年间的饥荒,饥馑遍地,十室九空。遇到奇葩的君王,命运多半便是如此。

      曹操《蒿里行》则言“白骨露于野,千里无鸡鸣,生民百遗一,念之断人肠。”遇到董卓这种大老虎、铁帽子王作乱,连一代奸雄曹操都不由哭断寸肠。

      凤仙郡求雨的榜文更是一副饿殍遍野、礼法沦丧的社会溃败全景图。连年亢旱,累岁干荒,不但饿得“十岁女易米三升,五岁男随人带去”,更兼饥饿灾荒带来人性之恶的爆发释放,“城中惧法,典衣当物以存身;乡下欺公,打劫吃人而顾命。”

      对于何时重新下雨,玉帝设下三桩条件:要等到一只小鸡嗛尽了十丈高的米山,一只小狗餂尽二十丈高的面山,灯焰燎断指头粗细、一尺多长的锁梃。

      这根本就是不可能实现的条件。

      相当于厨师亲切地对猪说:“你想被怎样吃掉?煎着吃?炒着吃?炖着吃?畅所欲言嘛。”

      猪:“其实吧……我并不想被吃掉。”

      厨师:“你看,说跑题了吧?”  

      更痛心的是,面对玉帝连坐的暴政,《西游记》原著中的孙悟空也成了一个怂包。当天师介绍完这三个条件后,“行者闻言,大惊失色,再不敢启奏。走出殿,满面含羞。”

      电视剧《西游记》倒是改得符合人们的期待一些。悟空还有敢跟玉帝叫板嚷嚷的勇气,在天庭大骂,为了玉帝的一念仇恨,让千家万户无端牵连受罚,是一郡的黎民百姓重要,还是你玉帝的面子重要? 

      但《西游记》原著坚定地回答道,当然是玉帝的面子重要。

      4、《封神演义》,全天下殉葬

      《西游记》连坐一个凤仙郡,《封神演义》更狠,竟然连坐全天下人。

      资料图

      封神一开篇。纣王无道,写淫诗亵渎人类始祖女娲。女娲大怒,派妲己等轩辕三妖托身宫院,惑乱君心。妲己放开手脚,肆意残害忠良,天下生灵涂炭,最终断送成汤江山。故事结束时,纣王自焚,武王得了天下,女娲还协助周营擒了三妖。三妖还很傻很天真,泣告辩护说,昔日是娘娘指派,小畜奉命而已,大功告成了,娘娘居然还把我们捉了,“不是娘娘出乎反乎了?”阳谋也好,阴谋也罢,领导岂是你们可以质疑的?女娲斥责说,让你断送殷受天下,没让你残贼生灵,推了个一干二净,然后直接把三妖处斩灭口。

      迷乱纣王自然就会带来天下大乱、百姓遭殃,两者有必然性,妲己她们怎么能做到只迷惑纣王不害天下百姓?你女娲自己弄死纣王而不危害民众,倒是有可能。但她没那么做,女娲的法旨事实上包含了拿天下人殉葬的意思。还是向家军拍的那部《封神传奇》来得直白,妲己的台词直接就是“从今往后就是全天下苍生流泪的日子。”

      【浪子海松话西游】品鉴西游故事,探寻法政智慧;解密历史背景,感悟人性精神。千古奇书《西游记》,被称为"史上最强IP”,猎奇可谈神论鬼,悟道可修圣成仙,浅出可怡情把玩,深入可明心见性。浪子海松,湖大教员,以法科为业,却痴迷神话,趣说西游,力图呈现神话背后的法政洞察与人性考量。

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