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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      中国人对待鬼神态度三境界 你在哪一层?
      发布日期:2017-09-06  点击数:993

      中元节又称为“鬼节”,这种带有浓厚神秘色彩的传统节日又承载了中华民族特色文化——“孝”文化。中元节作为中国传统纪念性节日,从古至今尽管朝代的更迭,但中元节还是被中华民族世代传承。究其原因,这不得不谈谈中国人对鬼神的态度了。

      从中华传统文化“代表人”孔夫子说起。要知道孔老夫子对鬼神的态度,当然首先得从他的日常言论中去了解。在《论语》中:

      樊迟问知。子曰:“务民之义,敬鬼神而远之,可谓知矣。” ——《论语·雍也篇》

      子不语怪,力,乱,神。——《论语·述而篇》

      记录:季路问事鬼神,子曰:“未能事人,焉能事鬼?”曰:“敢问死?”曰:“未知生,焉知死?” ——《论语·先进篇》

      子曰:“吾不与祭,如不祭。” ——《论语·八佾篇》

      孟懿子问孝。子曰:“无违。”樊迟御,子告之曰:“孟孙问孝于我,我对曰,无违。”樊迟曰:“何谓也?子曰:“生,事之以礼;死葬之以礼,祭之以礼。” ——《论语·为政篇》

      孔子对鬼神的态度首先是信其有,提倡要敬鬼神,重祭祀;但他又不过于迷信鬼神,主张对鬼神要刻意远离,这似乎反映了孔子思想的矛盾性。但仔细推敲孔子对鬼神的态度可以知道:与人事相比,孔子认为鬼神之事居其次,而且敬鬼神往往是为了重人事。

      但孔子说的与鬼神保持距离,并不是说否定鬼神的存在,孔子是对未知的事物保持缄默,但在祭祀时,要待之以礼。对超自然的力量,用“礼”来保持风度,当然,孔子也要表明了自己的态度:孔子积极入世的乐生思想决定了他对鬼神对鬼神敬而远之的态度,因而也以积极的态度来对待人生以及未知的事物。

      历代君王对鬼神的态度体现在对祭祀的态度上。封建社会里,最高统治者的即位与宗庙有密切关系,君主即为是感应了上天的号召使然。中国封建社会,自汉代起,中国最高统治者有两个称号,一曰“皇帝”、一曰“天子”,“皇帝即位”是通过读策与授玺来完成,而“天子即位”是通过祭天来完成的。《史记·封禅书》中载:“自古受命帝王,易尝不封禅?盖有无其应而用事者矣,未有睹符瑞见而不臻于泰山者也。”

      历代帝王是受之于天命的,而天命又是以一定的征兆下达于人世的,所以帝王必要封禅于泰山以谢天恩,所以登泰山封禅是为了报天之功而举行的祭祀。故历朝历代的皇帝都很重视祭天祭地祭祖, 《礼记·王制》中载:“天子诸侯宗庙之祭,春曰礿,夏曰禘,秋曰尝,冬曰烝。”封建社会皇帝的祭祀是庄重而崇高的。

      朱熹曰:“万物本乎天,人本乎祖,故以所出之祖配天地。”中元节对平民百姓的意义在于祭祖和超度亡灵,这是对我国远古时期留下来的祖先崇拜习俗的传承。汉·董仲舒《春秋繁露·四祭》:“古者岁四祭。四祭者,因四时之所生孰,而祭其先祖父母也。故春曰祠,夏曰礿,秋曰尝,冬曰蒸。此言不失其时,以奉祀先祖也。”平民百姓的宗教情感体现在对已故亲人的怀念与追思,在中元节这一天,生者与死者以特殊式沟通。

      《东京梦华录》卷八中记载了古代人中元节的一些习俗:

      七月十五,中元节。先数日,市井卖冥器靴鞋、懊头、帽子、金犀假带、五彩衣服,以纸糊架子盘游出卖潘楼并州东西瓦子,亦如七夕。闹处亦卖果实、种生、花果之类,及印卖《尊胜目连经》。又以竹竿祈成三脚,高三五尺,上织灯窝之状,谓之孟兰盆,挂搭衣服冥钱在上焚之。

      同样,现代人中元节也继承了古代人的一些习俗,在形式上稍有差异,但悼念先人的思想感情还是一样的。笔者的故乡在南方乡下,中元节的气氛比较浓厚,爷爷奶奶非常相信中元节这一天家里故去的先人会通过一个特殊的方式回到家里来跟我们团圆,每到农历7月15日这一天,家中的爸爸(爷爷没过世的时候是爷爷)都会去坟头扫墓、烧纸祭奠,然后在家里的堂屋还要设立仪式。7月14日晚,奶奶和妈妈会准备第二天需要祭祀的物什,如纸钱、香、蜡烛还有时令瓜果。第二天会在在房屋的显要位置摆放碗筷和最好的饭菜酒水、时令新鲜水果款待另一个世界的先人们,所以这天家里的子女们都要回到家中一起祭奠先人。

      印象最深的是所有的祭祀品是经过精心挑选的,且在祖先先用之前,谁都不能动,要等祖先用完餐,我们才能上桌吃饭。那时候还是小孩的我,最期待的是等祭祀完祖先之后,享用那些平时吃不到的新鲜可口的祭祀水果。这一天的亡灵都要请回家吃个团圆饭,感受家的温暖,表达亲人对先人们的怀念,到了黄昏家家都要放鞭炮送亡灵回去。在这一天,迎接自家先人的同时,为了防止那些无家可归的孤魂野鬼的侵扰,有些人家还要在自家门前烧些纸用来送给那些无家可归的孤魂。等我稍大一点可以记事了,奶奶告诉我她会在大门口的门槛处横一根棍子,那棍子叫拦门棍,为得是驱除野鬼来家,这便是中国人延续千年的朴素和仁义罢:既给野鬼们钱,让他们也过上好日子,同时又做了防备,防止野鬼对活人生活的影响。从平民百姓在中元节对祖先的祭拜中,可以感受到家族血脉的流传在中国农村依然十分重要。在喃喃低语的祈祷和祭奠中,生者完成了自己的倾诉,完成了对死者的追念,也完成了精神的抚慰。

      孔子不语乱力乱神,但在祭祀时,仍保持一颗虔诚的心,敬畏神灵。天子把鬼神崇高化,祭祀成为皇帝掌管江山社稷的一部分。而对平民百姓而言,对家族祖先的感情以及对神灵的崇拜是他们寻找保护神取悦神灵最直接的表现。中国人对中元节的态度是怀着敬畏与虔诚之心感念祖先的,与其说中元节是群鬼还阳作怪的好时机,不如说中元节是炎黄子孙对逝去先人表达情感的载体。

      来源:凤凰国学    责任编辑:玖玖
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