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    1. 您好,欢迎来到国学教育网! 登陆 | 免费注册
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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      郭守敬西夏治水
      发布日期:2017-06-08  点击数:874

      西夏末年,因蒙古与西夏连年征战,水利设施遭到严重破坏,田地荒芜,百姓四处逃难,久负盛名的塞北江南变得疮痍满目。

      至元元年(1264年),张文谦以中书左丞的身份巡视西夏,全面负责西夏治水工作,时任副河渠使的郭守敬随其前往,视察水利。郭守敬来西夏后沿黄河两岸勘察地势水情,走访百姓,绘制地图,并提出因旧谋新、更立闸堰的方案(即在疏浚旧渠故道的基础上增开新渠、在渠首建闸坝)。忽必烈审批后付诸实施。郭守敬率领民工开挖、疏浚原有河道,修堤建坝,在不到一年的时间里,修复了长达四百余里的唐来渠和长达二百五十余里的汉延渠以及正渠十余条、大小支渠六十八条,同时更立闸坝,以有效控制进渠水量,圆满完成了疏浚修复河渠的任务。郭守敬坚持不懈的努力,使西夏河渠皆通其利,数万顷农田得到了及时灌溉。西夏人民为了感谢郭守敬,在渠上建了郭氏生祠,并立碑记录了此事。

      至元二年(1265年),郭守敬自西夏返回中都途中,特地乘舟顺河而下,经四昼夜至东胜(今内蒙古托克托),以自己亲身试航成功证明了此段黄河可以漕运。同时,他还考察了查泊、兀郎海(今内蒙古乌梁素海)一带,认为这里的许多古渠修复后可以利用,并将此事上奏元世祖忽必烈,得到忽必烈的称赞。至元四年(1267年),忽必烈采纳郭守敬的建议,下令在中兴州至东胜黄河段上设立了十处水上驿站。此段漕运的开辟和水上驿站的设置,便利了西夏粮食外运,改善了西夏与上都、大都间的交通,加强了西夏故地与元朝中央的联系。

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