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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      “名”和“字”是一回事吗
      发布日期:2017-06-07  点击数:1000

      作为一个人的符号标志,名字是人与人之间用来区别的称谓。如今中国人的名字大多比较简单,一般都是由“姓”和“名”两部分组成,“姓”沿袭祖辈而来,代表着血缘关系;“名”则往往凝聚着长辈的殷切希望。名字一词在《现代汉语词典》里的解释是:“一个或几个字,跟姓合在一起,用来代表一个人,区别于别的人。”也就是说,一个人的名字是用来称呼的。然而,在中国古代,“名”和“字”并不是一回事,二者是分开使用的。古代的“名”,其实是今天我们常说的乳名或小名,古代的“字”,才是今天姓名中的“名”,即现在所谓的学名、大名或大号……  

      “冠字”是长大成人的标志 

      古人的名字一般由姓、氏、名、字、号五个部分组成,“名”和“字”就像“姓”和“氏”一样,二者是完全分开使用的。“姓”是代表有公共血缘关系的种族的称号,可简称为“部族号”;而“氏”则是从姓中派生、发展出来的不同支系的称号,也称“家族号”。我们祖先最初使用“姓”的目的是为了“别婚姻”、“明世系”、“别种族”;“氏”则是为了“别血统”、“别贵贱”的,古代贵族男子有姓有氏,贵族女子有姓无氏,黎民百姓有名无氏……秦汉以后,姓氏合一,逐渐成为一个词。同样,古代的“名”和“字”也不是一回事,正如《辞海》里关于名字一词的解释:“名字本为名和字的合称。《礼记·檀弓》:‘幼名,冠字’。古代人始生而有名,至二十成人,行冠礼加字,故合称‘名字’。后来一般指人的姓名或单指名。”在古代,“名”是指一个人在社会上所用的符号,带有鲜明的个人烙印;“字”大多是名的解释和补充,“字”与“名”互为表里,故又称“表字”。 

      “名”产生于氏族社会时期,是古人个体意识觉醒以及相互交往增多的必然结果。关于“名”的起源,《说文解字》在对“名”字“从口、从夕”的解释中已说得相当明确——在上古时期,人们白天交往可以相互看见,因此能通过形体、面貌来相互识别。可是到了晚上,相互之间看不清楚,就只能通过自我报名来相互知晓。所以,最早人们的“名”大多都很简单直白。如夏商两代常见的孔甲、祖乙、太戊、雍己、武丁等一些人名,多与天干、时辰有关;春秋时期有些人名如“孔丘”、“黑臀”、“黑肱”等多是以生理特征命名的;郑庄公名“寤生”,则是因为他母亲生他时难产而得名…… 

      值得关注的是,古人只有到了成年之后才能取字:男子“至二十成人,行冠礼加字”; “女子十五许嫁,笄礼之称字”。过去人们称未婚女子是“待字闺中”,正是因为古代对女子来说,结笄、取“字”和婚配都是成年的标志。 

      古人“直呼其名”被视为“大不敬” 

      古人从何时开始有“名”还要再取个“字”?从《礼记·檀弓上》所记来看,应该始于周代。唐代孔颖达在为《礼记·檀弓上》“幼名,冠字”作注时曾说:“生若无名,不可分别,故始三月而加名,故云幼名也。字者,人年二十,有为人父之道,朋友等类不可直呼其名,故冠而加字。”也就是说,当一个人成年之后,由长辈原来所起的和多年来被长辈所称呼的“名”就不便在公共场合呼来喊去,必须要另取一个供平辈或晚辈可以称呼的新名,即 “字”。 

      在中国古代,何时称“名”?何时称“字”?《仪礼·士冠礼》的说法是:“冠而字之,敬其名也。君父之前称名,他人则称字也。” 

      按照古代称谓礼仪,自称时称“名”,称别人时称“字”,是基本的礼貌。在人际交往中,对平辈或尊辈只能称字,不能称名,提到对方或别人时指名道姓、直呼其名,会被认为是一种不敬和冒犯的行为。下对上,卑对尊,尤其是君主或自己父母长辈的名更是连提都不能提,否则就是“大不敬”或叫“大逆不道”。因此,古人平辈互称,晚辈、后人对长辈、前人多以“字”相称,以示谦恭有礼。 

      对于古人“名”和“字”之间的关系,《白虎通·姓名》曾做过这样的概括:“或旁(傍)其名为之字者,闻名即知其字,闻字即知其名。”宋代类书《太平御览》也曾引先秦史籍《秦记》所云:“冠而有字,所以尊其名也,名成乎礼,字依乎名。”由于古人是先起“名”后取“字”,因此通常都是依照“字依乎名”的规则,从“名”的含义中来衍生出“字”。 

      “名”与“字”讲究关联“互训互表” 

      古人“名”与“字”的讲究颇多,其关联自然也是多种多样。比如名和字意思相近、相同,相左、相反,或者名和字意思相互补充…… 

      “名”与“字”含义相同或相近,二者相为辅佐,互作解释,即所谓的“同义互训”。如孔子的著名弟子、“孔门十哲”之一的宰予,字子我,“予”字在古代的解释即是同“我”; 东汉史学家班固,字孟坚,固和坚都有“坚定不可动摇”的意思;三国时期的诸葛亮,字孔明,“亮”与“明”的字义十分相近;唐代大诗人杜甫,字子美,“甫”即“男子之美称也”;北宋散文家曾巩,字子固,“巩”和“固”的意思也几乎相同。南宋抗金名将岳飞,字鹏举,“大鹏展翅”扶摇直上才叫“飞”…… 

      “名”与“字”含义相左或相反,二者互相对立,各从反面作解,即所谓的“反意相对”。如唐宋八大家之一的韩愈,字退之,“愈”为胜过之意,“退之”则是约束使其“勿胜过”;北宋词人晏殊,字同叔,“殊”即为不相同,和“同”的意思刚好相反;南宋理学家朱熹,字元晦,“熹”乃明亮之意,而“晦”则是昏暗的意思。 

      “名”与“字”含义由此及彼,二者意蕴递进,生发出“更进一步”的内涵,即所谓的“相关联想”。如关羽,字云长,由鸟儿的羽翼可以联想到天空飘动的白云;贾岛,字浪仙,由岛屿不难联想起浪花的自由飞舞;白居易,字乐天,因“乐天知命”“随遇而安”故能够“居易”。苏轼字子瞻,轼指车前供人凭倚的横木,“瞻”乃“高瞻远瞩”之意。这里的“轼”和“瞻”即是由倚“轼”而推想到“瞻望”;唐寅字伯虎,由寅联想到“十二地支”的寅与虎相配…… 

      此外,还有“同类而及”以及“追慕先人”、“借用名典”等,如孟郊,字东野,“野”即“郊外”,郊、野同是地理名词;孔鲤字伯鱼,鲤本来就是鱼类;郑樵字渔仲,樵夫常与渔翁为伴;曹操字孟德,源自《荀子·劝学》“夫是之谓德操”;郦道元,字善长,出自《周易·乾卦》中《文言》的一句话:“元,善之长也。” 

      屈原姓芈名平字原 

      战国末期楚国辞赋家屈原可谓大名鼎鼎,其名篇《离骚》、《九章》、《九歌》等广为人知。屈原创造的“楚辞”与《诗经》并称“风骚”二体,对后世诗歌产生深远影响。然而,鲜为人知的是,屈原并不姓屈,他本姓“芈”(mǐ),屈是他的“氏”,他的名叫“平”,而“原”是他的字。由于先秦时期男子称氏不称姓,所以人们称他为屈原。“原”和“平”这两个字在《尔雅·释地》中的解释是:“广平曰原”。 

      关于自己名字的来历,屈原在《离骚》中有这样一段自述:“帝高阳之苗裔兮,朕皇考曰伯庸。摄提贞于孟陬兮,惟庚寅吾以降。皇览揆余初度兮,肇锡余以嘉名,名余曰正则兮,字余曰灵均”。屈原说自己名叫 “正则”,字 “灵均”。这里的“正则”就是“平”,“灵均”就是“原”。其“名”和“字”蕴涵的深意是:“言正平可法则者,莫过于天,养物均调者,莫神于地。”而广平曰“原”,屈原名中的“正则”与“平”相结合,则意法天,字“灵均”与“原”相结合,则意法地。法天和法地,寄托了父亲对屈原的殷殷期盼。 

      除了名和字外,古人往往还有个“号”。古人于名、字、号之间的关系,可简单地概括为:名以正体,字以表德,号以明志。何为“号”?号其实是一个人的别称、别字、别号。据《周礼·春官·大祝》记载:“号,谓尊其名,更为美称焉”。在中国古代,名大多由尊长代取,而号则不同,号初为自取,故也称自号。后来,渐渐出现了别人所送的称号,称尊号、雅号等。 

      尽管号起源很早,但直至唐宋时期才开始盛行。历史上有很多名人的“号”甚至远远超过了其“名”,比如清代大画家、被称为“扬州八怪”之一的郑板桥,“板桥”二字就是他的“号”,他的“名”郑燮反而远远逊于其“号”。

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