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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      说说“年礼”那些事儿
      发布日期:2017-06-07  点击数:865

      要说年礼,那就话长了,至少在汉代,人们就已经开始送年礼,不过,有趣的是,最早送年礼,纯属精神礼品,是上司送给下属的一张名刺,上面画上一朵桃花,然后是落款。后来,逐渐有了同级之间互致名刺,以及下属向上司送名刺,写上“吉星高照”等祝福话,放在上司家的门房,以表贺年心意。所以,要我说,贺年卡不是西洋舶来品,而是我国最早的年礼。  

      到了宋代以后,年礼才渐渐物质化,茶酒等成为年礼,到了清代,吃穿戴用得着的东西都可作为年礼,我国极富特色的年礼文化也在漫长的历史中逐渐形成。 

      放在过去,送年礼那是相当讲究的,送的品种、时间、对象都各有不同。年礼大体上是以“吉祥”为主题的,主要有吉祥神灵、动物、植物、饰物、宝物、食物、服饰以及吉祥话、吉祥戏票等,各色不同。就好像农历兔年就要到了,以兔为主题的各种礼物,以及鱼、麒麟等吉祥动物形象,水仙花、仙客来植物,长寿结、百岁结,寿糕、桂圆等,哪样送人,都是相当吉祥的。 

      有句俗话叫:“什么是过年,就是姑娘的花、小子的炮、老婆婆的年糕、老头的毡帽。”这句话里包含了年礼的众多内容,以及期盼团圆美满、尊老爱幼的年礼文化。 

      在过去,从腊月初八就算开始过年,直到二月初二,这年才算过完,这期间都可以送年礼,大年三十前一般送的是自家亲戚和尊敬的师长前辈,正月里才是朋友间互送年礼。正月里送的年礼,很多是庙会上采购的物品,比如风车、空竹。记得我小时候,正月里在院子里学会了抖别人送的空竹,喊了一声:我抖起来了!爸妈闻声从房中跑出,高兴坏了,这可是年礼带来的最吉祥的兆头哩! 

      再说压岁钱,现在人都兴给老人、孩子送压岁钱,其实只有给老人送的才叫压岁钱,寓意长寿。过去,父母给孩子送的是8个一串的铜钱,称之为压祟钱,寓意保平安。隔辈老人才能给孩子们送真钱以借老人的福气来压岁。不像现在家长给孩子动辄几百上千的压岁钱,愿望相同,做法不一样了。 

      与年礼配套的,还有吉祥话儿,这也是年礼的一种。这一点相当重要,如果给人送年礼,不配上几句好听话,再好的礼也难称圆满。比如,送新婚夫妇的年礼中有酒有茶,就要说给您送连理酒、美满茶来了。 

      当然,送年礼还有一些避讳事儿。比如按老北京说法,过年千万别给人送鞋,不能给人送腊八蒜,送礼物的件数最好避开4和7,各地讲究不一。 

      现在,生活水平越来越好,人们送的东西也越来越时尚,手机、电脑等都成为年礼的品种,这反映了社会的进步,不过呢,我还是希望人们更加喜欢传统文化,因为单这一年礼,就传递了众多中国的传统美德,值得继承和弘扬。

      来源:人民日报海外版    责任编辑:知远
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