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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      孔子的廉政思想:“节用爱人”
      发布日期:2017-06-02  点击数:955

      吾十有五而志于学,三十而立,四十不惑,五十而知天命,六十而耳顺,七十而从心所欲,不逾矩。——《论语·为政》

      己欲立而立人,己欲达而达人。己所不欲,勿施于人。——《论语·卫灵公》

      孔子,名丘,字仲尼,春秋末年的思想家和教育家,儒家学派始祖,被尊称为“圣人”和“万世师表”。

      孔子自幼家境贫寒,3岁丧父,是母亲颜氏将他抚养长大。后做小官,官职最高到主管鲁国的司法,此后便周游列国,晚年回到鲁国,进行讲学授徒,整理典籍,他的言论被其弟子收集于《论语》中。

      孔子的思想精华在于“仁政”和“德治”即“节用爱人”。在《论语·述而》中记载:“节用而爱人,使民以时”,集中体现了其廉政思想。

      孔子在《论语·学而》中说:“温、良、恭、俭、让”,把“俭”作为自己的人生态度之一。“节用”,即不奢侈,是指生活上革奢务俭,经济上节约财政开支,宽厚民力,使民以时,不掠夺农民,奖励生产等。“节用”的经济思想也是治国施政的根本基础,因为为政奢侈,必导致伤财,伤财必害民,故爱民必先节用。节用之后,实施仁政才会有丰厚的经济基础。“节用”是薄敛的前提,孔子反对官府对民众过多的压榨,要求他们“惠民”、“敛以从薄”,这样百姓才能“近者悦,远者来”,国家也才能“足食、足民、民信之”。

      孔子认为,“君子不可以小知而大受也,小人不可大受而可小知也”。孔子指出,做官的人“其身正,不令而行;其身不正,虽令不从”。“爱人”二字是孔子以德治天下廉政思想的高度浓缩。“仁者爱人”、“为政以德”,直接把“仁”与“爱”结合,反映了孔子要求执政者从自身做起的思想,“政者正也,子帅不正,孰敢不正”。孔子还具体指出了做官者应当具备的五种美德:一是施民以实惠而自己不贪求;二是使民劳作有度而不生怨言;三是行仁政;四是安泰自若而不傲慢;五是容貌威严但不让人生畏。同时应该摒弃的四种恶政是:“虐、暴、贼、有习(小气)”。

      孔子的“节用爱人”思想是我国古代廉政思想中的宝贵财富,我国历代廉吏无不以此为其廉政的基本出发点,极大地丰富了我国古代廉政思想的内涵,如“不义而富且贵,于我如浮云”,曾激励了许多从政者廉洁自励,拒贿反贪,对后代臣民都产生了很大影响。

       

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