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      ?今日:2019年 10月 11日 星期五 农历: 己亥年九月十三
      学者谈老子的和谐与自然无为思想
      发布日期:2017-01-04  点击数:1009
             


            董京泉 山东济南人,早年毕业于山东大学政治系,后为中国社科院研究生院第一届研究生,并获哲学硕士学位。长期在中宣部理论局工作,曾任副局长,后为全国社科规划办公室主任,研究员。现任中国社会科学院马克思主义研究院特聘研究员,国家社科基金项目评审专家,某些著名高校兼职教授。曾在人民日报、光明日报、经济日报、求是杂志、哲学研究、文史哲等报刊上发表重要理论和学术文章数十篇。主要著作有《建设有中国特色社会主义简论》、《毛泽东思想邓小平理论研究》、《结合论》、《社科研究与理论创新》。2008年由中国社会科学出版社出版的90多万字的《老子道德经新编》,受到学术界的关注,海内外一些著名学者给予高度评价;其修订版即将出版。

             老子,字聃,今河南鹿邑人,曾长期任“周守藏室之史”,孔子曾多次向他请教。后退隐,著《老子》(《道德经》)。老子的思想体系可以说是以形而上的道为根本依据,以“道法自然”为宗旨,以自然无为为纲纪,以依道修身为中介,以治国安民、实现社会和谐和人生理想为归宿的理论大厦。关于社会人生和谐及人与自然和谐的思想,以及关于自然无为和依道治国的思想,是老子思想最重要的组成部分。



             老子哲学可以说是以“道”为本体的社会人生哲学,其中关于“和”的思想和关于自然无为的思想是其核心内容。现在就这两个问题谈谈个人的心得体会。



             老子关于“和”的思想与实现和谐的途径


             一般认为老子追求的最高境界是与道合一或“同于道”,然而道是最高的和谐体,因而归根结底老子追求的最终价值和最高境界是“和”或和谐哲学。“和”或“和谐”是我国传统文化的重要理念和价值取向。我们看到,先秦其他各家的学说均以社会政治生活为论述的中心,其中的和谐思想局限于构建人与人和人与社会的理想化关系,而老子及道家的和谐思想则在论域上作了进一步拓展,在人与人和人与社会的关系和谐之外,又多论及个人的身心和谐、人与自然的和谐以及国际关系的和谐,从而构成了社会和谐理论的完整系统。

            
           (一)老子认为,和谐是天地万物的常态,不和谐是暂时的;社会人生的不和谐以及人与自然的不和谐主要是人的不当行为造成的,从历史长河看,这种现象也是暂时的;世界上存在两种状态的“和”,应维护好,处理好。

            老子说:“和曰常,知和曰明。”(《老子》五十五章,郭店简本。以下凡引《老子》,不再标注书名及章次)意思是说,“和”是天地万物的常态,能认识和谐是天地万物常态的,就是明达事理。老子认为“和”是道的本质性体现,与此相反的阴阳完全对立的状态不是道的从而亦不是事物的常态。关于“和”是天地万物常态的论断,已为天体史、地球史、生物史所证明。

            老子说:“天之道,其犹张弓与?高者抑之,下者举之;有余者损之,不足者补之。天之道,损有余而补不足。人之道则不然,损不足而奉有余。孰能有余以奉天下?唯有道者。”这是说,自然界的规律是趋向平衡和谐的,而进入私有制社会以来,人类社会在总体上是不和谐的,这是因为“损不足而奉有余”的原则大行其道。但是,从总的发展趋势来看,不和谐不但不是自然界的常态,而且不是人类社会的常态,因为从人类历史长河看,私有制的存在不过是一个小插曲。

            老子说:“道生一,一生二,二生三,三生万物(按:道依次所”生“的一、二、三,皆是”道“在形而上范围内的展开)。万物负阴而抱阳,冲气以为和。”在这个基本图式中包含着两种状态的“和”:一是道及其所“生”的“一” 阶段的“和”,这种“和”是尚未分化的混沌状态的“和”;二是在“二生三”之后,“冲气以为和”的“和”,这是对立面经过交感激荡后所实现的和谐状态。

            “和曰常,知和曰明”是说知道上述两种状态的“和”是事物的常态,从而尽力维持第一种“和”,在阴阳完全对立的情况下,努力促成第二种“和”的实现的行为,才是明智的。五十五章说的“精之至”、“和之至”的含德之厚的赤子,二十八章说的“复归于婴儿”,就是要人们力图保持或复归于道的未分化的“和之至”的状态,亦即所谓返本复初。在不可能做到的情况下,也要努力促成第二种“和”,以实现新的和谐,而不应听任事物长期处于尖锐对立的状态。显然,老子对“和”的这种区分具有重要理论价值和实践意义。

           (二)老子深刻地揭示了天地万物及社会人生和谐的内在机制。和谐是一个对立统一的概念,是矛盾双方相互关系的特殊形态。没有对立面的“冲气”与“磨合”,就不能实现和谐。

      “万物负阴而抱阳”是说天地万物及社会人生都包含着相互依存、相互渗透的对立面,概莫能外。阴与阳的对立统一乃是一切事物的固有属性,以为有阴而无阳或有阳而无阴,就如同以为有上而无下或有下而无上一样,是不能成立的。“冲气以为和”中的“冲气”,并不是一种气体,而是指统一物内部对立面之间的相互排斥、相互斗争、涌摇激荡、对立统一的机制,“冲气”不过是对此种机制的形象化表述;“以为和”的“和”是说对立面的涌摇激荡或斗争作为一种机制作用于事物而达到了对立面之间某种程度的协调、平衡、和谐或融合。矛盾双方相互排斥和相互作用使事物实现了某种和谐,即“冲气以为和”。

      总之,老子这里所讲的“和”是一个对立统一概念,它是以“负阴而抱阳”即事物对立面的共同存在为前提,以“冲气”即对立面的相互排斥、相互斗争、涌摇激荡为基础、关键环节、必要条件和内在动力的“和”。没有差异、矛盾、对立和必要的斗争,就没有对立面的统一与和谐,也没有对立面的转化。因此,和谐不是无矛盾,而是矛盾双方相互关系的特殊形态。不能把矛盾双方的斗争比较缓和、统一体相对平衡的状态叫做和谐,更不能把矛盾双方共处于一个统一体中的状态称为和谐,只有矛盾双方不仅相对稳定地处在统一体之中,而且一方的发展有助于另一方的发展,即“相辅相成”、“共生共荣”、“互利双赢”的状态,才是哲学意义上的和谐。

          (三)老子认为“道”本身是和谐的,天地万物及社会人生和谐的根本原因是“得道”,实现社会和谐的根本途径是“执大象”,“以道莅天下”、按照道所体现的自然无为原则办事。

            和谐是道的基本特征,道是对立面和谐的统一体,又是独立无偶的,所以老子有时称道为“一”。他说:“昔之得‘一’者:天得一以清,地得一以宁,神得一以灵,谷得一以盈,万物得一以生,侯王得一以为天下贞”,亦即得“一”而和谐;如果不得“一”,情况就会完全相反。因此,为了实现社会和谐,就必须高举道的旗帜,所以老子说:“以道莅天下,其鬼不神”,“执大象,天下往。往而不害,安、平、泰”。

             为什么说“以道莅天下”,就会“其鬼不神”呢?为什么说“执大象”就会“天下往”,就会“安、平、泰”呢?就是因为真正依“道”而行了。说起来,“道”似乎神乎其神,但揭开其神秘的面纱,它的实质就是矛盾法则或对立统一规律,因而所谓“法道”,所谓“依道而行”,也就是我们常说的按辩证法办事。稍有不同的是,老子特别强调遵循道所体现的自然无为原则。自然无为原则要求顺应事物的自然本性及其发展趋势而为,对于社会而言,就是要为民众创造良好的社会政治环境,提供充分的自由发展空间,这显然有利于和谐社会的实现。

            老子说:“夫天下,神器也。不可为也,不可执也。为者败之,执者失之。”意思是说,天下人是神圣的啊!对他们不可强行所为,也不能硬性控制。强行所为的,必然失败;硬性控制的,必将失去。究竟是视人民为“神器”,“以百姓之心为心”,一切顺应民心民意呢,还是视百姓如草芥,对其强行宰制,颐指气使,为所欲为呢?这是治国者的根本立场和根本态度问题。显然,前者有利于促进社会和谐,后者只能勉强维持社会的暂时稳定。老子还认为,要促进社会和谐的实现,必须在制度层面建立“损有余而补不足”的公正合理的利益分配机制,确保普通民众的生存权与发展权,并积极倡导“为而不争”的社会风尚。


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