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      ?今日:2019年 10月 08日 星期二 农历: 己亥年九月初十
      文学名著里看民俗:贾府如何过除夕
      发布日期:2017-01-04  点击数:1216

                      

       

      《红楼梦》描写的节庆活动很多,但专门描写贾府过年的场景就只有一次,即五十三回的“宁国府除夕祭宗祠,荣国府元宵开夜宴”。一个从上到下有三百余口人具有显赫地位的大家族,贾府在年三十会忙些什么?他们的年夜饭又是如何吃的呢?



      贾府的年夜饭

       

      贾府的年夜饭是在祭祖之后。在贾府,过年最大的礼仪是祭祖,时间在年三十。这一天,贾母有诰封,须先进宫朝贺,然后来到宗祠祭拜。祭祀开始的时候,有乐队奏乐,共献爵三次,然后次第焚帛奠酒,然后所有参加祭祀者一起行礼。

       

      祭罢宗祠,大队人马再到正堂向祖宗遗像礼拜。贾母拈香下拜,贾府一族之人也悉皆跪下。书中说,如此一跪不打紧,竟“将五间大厅、三间抱厦、内外廊檐、阶上阶下、两丹墀内,花团锦簇,塞得无一隙空地”,可以想象,现场的情景一定煞是壮观。

       

      祭拜过祖先之后,一干人等还要到荣国府给贾母行礼。“两府男妇小厮丫鬟亦按差役上中下行礼毕,散押岁钱,荷包,金银锞,摆上合欢宴来。男东女西归坐,献屠苏酒、合欢汤、吉祥果、如意糕毕,贾母起身进内间更衣,众人方各散出。”

       

      等受礼散钱之后,开始全家的和欢宴。当晚还有给各处的佛堂、灶王焚香上供的节目。整个除夕之夜,两府内外,荣宁街上,统统都是灯火高挑,爆竹齐鸣,笑语喧阗,竟夜不绝。本来是守岁之夕,看来贾府的风气,守岁也守得闹中无静,怪不得贾宝玉最受不了的就是荣宁两府的热闹。



      贾府年三十的忙碌


      一、收年例


      贾府虽是“昌明隆胜之邦,诗礼簪缨之族”,同时也有好多庄园,是剥削阶级食物链的上层,其对劳动人民的剥削、压榨是在所难免的。即使乌庄头送来那么多的年例,贾珍还抱怨物品短少,面对着那张浸透了劳动人民一年辛苦血汗的沉甸甸的米面肉菜单子,竟然斥责:“这够做什么的!你们又打擂台,真真是叫别过年了!”贾府对底层百姓的倾轧可见一斑。曹雪芹通过这一描写,暴露出了贾府这个“诗礼之家”的道貌岸然,刻画了官僚地主的剥削本质。


      二、祭祖


      贾府每年除夕都要举行隆重的祭祖仪式,这既是出于传宗接代、延续香火的实际需要,也是后代报效祖先、感恩先人的一种隆重礼仪。贾家是大家族,宗祠建得极有气派,祭祖不仅有复杂的准备工作,而且仪式隆重、复杂,充分显示了贾家非同一般的地位。曹雪芹通过描写“五间大厅,三间抱厦,内外廊檐,阶上阶下两丹墀内,花团锦簇,塞的无一隙空地”的宏大场面,烘托出了贾府严格的宗祠制度和等级制度,使贾府一品望族的地位跃然纸上。  


      三、朝贺

      贾府是一个即将没落的家族,因为有了元春的入宫和得宠,才给它注入了一剂强心针。即使这样,贾府仍然无法摆脱“外面的架子还未甚倒,内囊却也尽上来了”的败落趋势。为了维持这种“百足之虫,死而不僵”的局面,贾府必须要对赐予他们恩惠的皇帝表达千恩万谢,尤其是到了春节这种重要节日,更要虔诚的到皇宫磕头朝贺,感激皇恩。“次日五鼓,贾母等人按品上妆,摆全副执事进宫朝贺,兼祝元春千秋”,写出了贾府上下在对皇帝朝贺问题上的高度重视。


      取乐

      曹雪芹在描写贾府过年取乐时,除了与亲戚们互相宴请吃“年酒”外,把更多的笔墨用在了“元宵开夜宴”上。元宵节时,普通人家可以出外观赏烟花社火,而贾府这样的官宦人家,自然不用像平常人家那样,他们可以在深宅大院里自娱自乐,尽情享受节日的欢乐。热衷于享乐的贾母为了活跃节日气氛,竟然在“花厅上摆了十来席酒”,还“差人去请众族中男女”来一起喝酒、听戏。高兴之余,贾母还要大把给戏子们赏钱,以此来显示了贾府表面上的富足。 曹雪芹描写贾府过年,看似在向读者展现贾府热闹、繁荣的场面,但其真实用意却在于暴露贾府政治、经济上的日趋衰败。从先前元春省亲时的“烈火烹油、鲜花着锦”,到如今“只怕就精穷了”似的入不敷出;从“除夕祭宗祠”的人山人海、颇为隆重,到“元宵开夜宴”时的廖无几人、冷冷清清,贾府的败象越来多,也越来越明显。贾府作为“百足之虫”的末日,已为期不远。这次过年,是贾府由胜转衰的重要分水岭。


       

       

      来源:国学经典论坛  作者:刘梦溪  责任编辑:知睿老师
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